Carsten Carlberg
Vitamin D and Its Target Genes
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1354;

The vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is the natural, high-affinity ligand of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR). In many tissues and cell types, VDR binds in a ligand-dependent fashion to thousands of genomic loci and modulates, via local chromatin changes, the expression of hundreds of primary target genes. Thus, the epigenome and transcriptome of VDR-expressing cells is directly affected by vitamin D. Vitamin D target genes encode for proteins with a large variety of physiological functions, ranging from the control of calcium homeostasis, innate and adaptive immunity, to cellular differentiation. This review will discuss VDR’s binding to genomic DNA, as well as its genome-wide locations and interaction with partner proteins, in the context of chromatin. This information will be integrated into a model of vitamin D signaling, explaining the regulation of vitamin D target genes.

Keywords: vitamin D; VDR; target genes; chromatin; epigenome; transcriptome; vitamin D signaling

View full text